Network Configuration on Windows 10

Microsoft provides simple configuration of IPv4 and IPv6 in Windows 10 via GUI tools.

Bring up Control Panel, then select Network and Internet, then Network and Sharing Center, and finally Change adapter settings. You will see a list of interfaces:

Right click on the desired interface and select Properties.

You can enable or disable IPv4 on this interface by checking or unchecking the square just before Internet Protocol Version 4. You can enable or disable IPv6 on this interface by checking or unchecking the square just before Internet Protocol Version 6.

IPv4 Configuration

To manage IPv4 configuration, double click on Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4).

To do manual configuration of IP address, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway, select Use the following IP address, and then enter the desired values. Note that if you select manual configuration, that will also force manual setting of the addresses of DNS.

To allow automated configuration of the IP Address, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway via DHCPv4, select Obtain an IP address automatically. The configured information will not be shown here. When doing DHCPv4 configuration, you can select automated or manual configuration of DNS addresses.

To configure IPv4 addresses for DNS manually, select Use the Following DNS server addresses and then enter the addresses of DNS in your network (your network admin can provide these for you).

If you have selected DHPv4 configuration of IP address, you can also choose DHCP configuration of DNS addresses, by selecting Obtain DNS server address automatically.

When you click OK on this property sheet and the top level sheet, the selected interface will be configured.

To view the configuration, in a command prompt, use the command ipconfig /all. Here I have disabled IPv6, so you see only IPv4 configuration, using DHCPv4.

C:\Users\lhughes.SIXSCAPE-SG>ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : LEH-PC
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net

Ethernet adapter Ethernet:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : sg.sixscape.net
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : FC-AA-14-BE-96-89
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 172.17.3.20(Preferred)
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Friday, May 24, 2019 3:08:48 PM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Friday, May 24, 2019 7:08:48 PM
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 172.17.0.1
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.17.0.13
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.17.0.13
172.17.0.14
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Enabled

The Physical Address is the interface MAC address. The DHCP Enabled refers to DHCPv4. All settings are from DHCPv4, and the lease information is displayed.

Here is the output from ipconfig with manual configuration:

C:\Users\lhughes.SIXSCAPE-SG>ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : LEH-PC
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net

Ethernet adapter Ethernet:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : FC-AA-14-BE-96-89
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 172.20.2.1(Preferred)
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 172.20.0.1
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.20.0.13
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Enabled

Note that DHCP Enabled is now No, and no lease information is shown. The values are from the manual configuration.

IPv6 Configuration

Even thought IPv6 is a far more complex protocol, Microsoft tried to make it look a lot like configuring IPv4, which leads to some confusion.

As with IPv4, you can manually configure IPv6 or allow automated configuration. If SLAAC is enabled (and there is no way to enable or disable this with these GUI controls), and there is a source of Router Advertisements, the interface will generate autonomous public addresses, regardless of GUI settings. The “automated configuration” refers to DHCPv6 configuration, but this is also influenced by flags in the Router Advertisement message, and whether there is a stateful DHCPv6 server present or not.

To do manual configuration, double click on Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IPv6). That will bring up the IPv6 properties form:

To specify a static address, select Use the following IPv6 address and enter the desired global unicast or ULA IPv6 address (no link local address here). The Subnet prefix length will pretty much always be 64. You can enter a default gateway, but if SLAAC is working this will be obtained automatically (unlike IPv4). You can enter a global unicast address, or link local. If you enter a link local address, be sure to include the interface ID (e.g. %13). Unless you have disabled Router Discovery, the best option is to leave Default Gateway empty.

You can enter the IPv6 addresses of DNS manually. If you select automatic, it can get this from the Router Advertisement message (assuming your RA message includes DNS addresses per RFC 6144) or from DHCPv6 (stateless or stateful).

If you choose Obtain an IPv6 address automatically, it will get an address from DHCPv6 (assuming there is a stateful DHCpv6 server present, and RA message flags are set correctly).

With IPv4 you can only configure one IP address (either manually or via DHCPv4). With IPv6, you can configure any of the following (or variuos combinations of them):

      • A link local address, starting with fe80:: (always)
      • A static global unicast address (manually specified IP address)
      • A global address assigned by DHCPv6 (auto configured IP address)
      • One (or more likely two) autonomously generated public addresses (from SLAAC)

All configured addresses are live – your node will accept incoming connections to all configured IPv6 addresses, and the source address will be chosen by Windos as one of the valid (i.e. not deprecated) addresses, depending on the destination address. A programmer can force selection of a specific address by binding it to the socket.

Here I have disabled IPv4, so you only see IPv6 information in ipconfig:

C:\Users\lhughes.SIXSCAPE-SG>ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : LEH-PC
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net

Ethernet adapter Ethernet:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : sg.sixscape.net
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : FC-AA-14-BE-96-89
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000::2:1(Preferred)
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000:3c6b:d341:4cd1:68b6(Preferred)
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Friday, May 24, 2019 3:32:12 PM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Wednesday, June 5, 2019 8:22:57 AM
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000:b019:23ce:6879:2c0d(Preferred)
Temporary IPv6 Address. . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000:4024:69a7:5ab4:95f6(Preferred)
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::b019:23ce:6879:2c0d%16(Preferred)
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : fe80::290:bff:fe25:b1e3%16
DHCPv6 IAID . . . . . . . . . . . : 117221908
DHCPv6 Client DUID. . . . . . . . : 00-01-00-01-24-0F-79-A3-FC-AA-14-BE-96-89
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000::13
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled
Connection-specific DNS Suffix Search List :
sg.sixscape.net
sg.sixscape.net

There is a link local address : fe80::b019:23ce:6879:2c0d%16 – The %16 is the interface ID.

Note that the discovered IPv6 default gateway address is link local, and is shown complete with the interface ID.

There is one manually configured static address: 2001:470:ed3a:1000::2:1.

There is one dynamic address assigned by DHCPv6:  2001:470:ed3a:1000:3c6b:d341:4cd1:68b6. The lease start and expiration times are shown.

One global unicast address assigned by SLAAC: 2001:740:ed3a:1000:b019:23ce:6879:2c0d.

One global unicast temporary address assigned by SLAAC: 2001:470:ed3a:1000:4024:69a7:5ab4:95f6.

There is just one DNS server (which was manually configured): 2001:470:ed3a:1000::13.

All addresses are currently in the preferred state.

Here is ipconfig /all output with both IPv4 and IPv6 enabled:

C:\Users\lhughes.SIXSCAPE-SG>ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : LEH-PC
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : sg.sixscape.net

Ethernet adapter Ethernet:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : sg.sixscape.net
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : FC-AA-14-BE-96-89
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000::2:1(Preferred)
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000:3c6b:d341:4cd1:68b6(Preferred)
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Friday, May 24, 2019 3:32:12 PM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Wednesday, June 5, 2019 8:22:58 AM
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000:b019:23ce:6879:2c0d(Preferred)
Temporary IPv6 Address. . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000:4024:69a7:5ab4:95f6(Preferred)
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::b019:23ce:6879:2c0d%16(Preferred)
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 172.20.2.1(Preferred)
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : fe80::290:bff:fe25:b1e3%16
172.20.0.1
DHCPv6 IAID . . . . . . . . . . . : 117221908
DHCPv6 Client DUID. . . . . . . . : 00-01-00-01-24-0F-79-A3-FC-AA-14-BE-96-89
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:ed3a:1000::13
172.20.0.13
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Enabled
Connection-specific DNS Suffix Search List :
sg.sixscape.net

Here is the same information as presented in SixConf:

Much simpler to understand, right? You can also easily manually create additional global addresses, either unicast or anycast.

You can also view all multicast addresses (not easy with Windows GUI):

You can’t assign multicast addresses via any GUI – these are added by applications “subscribing” to a particular multicast address.

To get a free copy of SixConf and the User Guide, go here.